Groups with far-right ideological profile led the debate about transgender people on Facebook between 2019 and 2023 in Brazil

Analysis by: Democracy Reporting International and FGV Direito Rio

 

Analysis by: Democracy Reporting International and FGV Direito Rio

 

  • Among the most active public Facebook groups debating that stood out in debates  transgender people and rights, the vast majority are aligned with the far-right and to former president Jair Bolsonaro; only one group politically aligned with the left;
  • Specific posts about “gender ideology” peaked in 2019, having reduced in quantity over the last few years; however, commentary about transgender people, as well as events in which this population is highlighted generate negative and hostile reactions online;
  • The transgender agenda and “the left” are commonly related in these publications, marking off the defence of gender identity as something negative, along with themes such as abortion and feminism;
  • The sentiment of posts found in groups with a far-right political bias is predominantly negative. Predominant themes or discussion points include  "gender ideology" and "gender-neutral bathrooms", with messages that contain  disinformation about transgender rights and hate speech.

 

The debate on Facebook about the rights, political claims and experiences of transgender people has been permeated by themes we classified into the following categories: “gender ideology”, “religion and gender identity/expression”, “trans visibility and its repercussions”, “support networks”, “gender-neutral bathrooms”, and “ non-binary language”. When discussing these topics, participants in public groups with a predominantly far-right profile on Facebook tend to use words that are classified as negative in connotation, with a prevalence of anti-trans posts. This is what the analysis by Democracy Reporting Internationaland the Diversity and Inclusion Program at FGV Direito Rio shows.

 

Methodology

 

This report examines  political discourse around transgender issues and  rights in Brazil. Using quantitative and qualitative analysis methods, we observed a set of posts sourced from public Facebook groups between January 1st, 2019, and April 30th, 2023. We collected 300,000 posts per month during the analysis period and ranked them according to the total number of interactions, from highest to lowest, regardless of the group in which they were published.

 

From a database of approximately 16.1 million posts, we selected a subset using a keyword search. For this, we filtered the posts according to a list, created by the authors of this report, with terms and expressions related to the main discussions carried out by and related to transgender people in Brazil. In total, 4,122 publications that met the established criteria were analyzed.

 

Our main goal was to understand how topics related to trans people were debated in those online communities and, simultaneously, to identify  possible associations between the topics addressed and significant events reverberated in the Brazilian press. Furthermore, we identified: (I) Who leads the debate — which groups dominated the discussion and identified their political profile; (II) What is said — and identification of the most discussed topics and the average of posts and reactions associated with each of them, to understand their online impact; and (III) The tone of the debate— the sentiment attached to the posts, in order to understand whether the topics were debated from a negative, positive or neutral perspective.

 

In the wake of this analysis, we used topic modeling to identify the main topics discussed; sentiment analysis to determine the emotional polarity of posts; and engagement metrics to identify the groups that had the highest number of posts on the topic, as well as the topics that received the most interactions. Qualitatively, we connected the themes mapped in the quantitative section with some of the key events in the political, legal, cultural, and social realms involving the transgender population in Brazil throughout the analysed period.

 

 

Who leads the debate: Mapping of the main groups addressing transgender issues and rights on Facebook

 

The public Facebook groups where the debate involving transgender people was most pronounced were predominantly aligned with the far-right and associated with former President Jair Bolsonaro, as indicated by the majority of the group titles from the outset (Table 1). In the table below, we identify the number of members, the number of posts overall related to trans issues, the political spectrum and the most discussed topic in each group about transgender people.

 

Table 1: Public Facebook groups with the highest number of posts that discuss being transgender and the rights of transgender people.

Period: from January 1, 2019, to April 30, 2023

 

Source: Facebook | Produced by: Democracy Reporting International (DRI)

 

  • In many cases, identical messages were identified in multiple groups, which may suggest the presence of bots or users intentionally spreading hate speech and mass disinformation. Most of the messages are marked by attacks, offenses, and falsehoods about LGBTQIA+ people and tend to foster political polarization between the left and the right, suggesting that the content is based on political-party motivations; 
  • The groups “Grupo do SOLDADO DE AÇO RESISTÊNCIA PATRIÓTICA (Steel Soldier Patriotic Resistance),” “GRUPO OLAVO DE CARVALHO (Olavo de Carvalho Group),” “BOLSONARO O MELHOR PRESIDENTE (Bolsonaro, the best president),” “Aliança pelo Brasil 22 (Alliance for Brazil 22),” “DIREITA RACIONAL (Rational Far-Right),” and “FORÇABRASIL (Strength to Brazil)” are some that contained the highest number of posts discussing transgender people. By virtue of their own names, they tend to reinforce a direct association with the former president, and therefore, their intention to align themselves with a political party. The analysed publications utilize  “moral panic” as a way to criminalise and dehumanise the transgender population and, on a broader level, “the left,” as well as Bolsonaro’s other opponents;

 

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Caption: This leftist trash and thugs have always sucked and will continue to do so!!! Many pedophiles and rapists will take advantage of this gender ideology that to me only aims to degrade the family! 

In the school bathroom, a "trans" student according to the gender ideology, enters the girl's bathroom and gets involved in aggression with a girl who felt uncomfortable. Anyway, that's what this leftist disgrace wants: fights and confusion!

Source: Facebook | Preparation: Diversity and Inclusion Program (FGV Direito Rio)

 

  • The “edita pra mim” (edit for me) group, which has the stated purpose of collaboratively editing images — something seemingly unrelated to the discussion about transgender people — stood out among the others. It had the highest number of posts about trans people and, in the vast majority of them, had a negative tone. Upon examining the reason for the mismatch between the stated objective of the group (image editing) and this type of content, it was identified that previously it demonstrated alignment with former President Jair Bolsonaro, having previously being named “Equipe do Bolsonaro de Plantão” (Bolsonaro's On-Duty Team), “Mito 22” (Myth 22), and “Direita Brasil” (Right Brazil) between 2018 and 2023. Only in March 2023 did the group change its name to “edita pra mim”.

 

  • The group, whose content needs to be authorised by the administrators before publication, frequently received conservative and transphobic posts throughout the analyzed period, generally against “the left” and the concept of “gender ideology”; In these publications, there was a recurring attempt to criminalise LGBTQIA+ and left-wing people, exemplified by the false association between these individuals and pedophilia practices. 

 

  • The persistence of disinformation and hateful content in a group with a high number of followers who, in theory, claims to promote a different type of content, can be seen as a strategy to attract more people to a certain ideological position with political-party purposes. This interpretation is, however, a hypothesis that needs to be further investigated to verify its plausibility;  

 

  • Among the highlighted groups, the only stand out in terms of political alignment was “LGBT Brasil (profile 2)”, targeting an audience engaged in the LGBTQIA+ issues, with a strong “anti-Bolsonaro” content. According to the group's description, its objective is to "promote public policies for the development of the LGBT community." In addition to opposing Bolsonaro, the observed posts focused on denouncing episodes of violence against LGBTQIA+ individuals, especially cases resulting in homicides. Furthermore, there were also some posts celebrating achievements of LGBTQIA+ individuals and highlighting aspects of their activism, such as the promotion of events and actions for this purpose. 

 

What is being said: Key topics in posts addressing transgender issues and rights on Facebook

 

The graph below depicts the temporal evolution of key topics concerning transgender people in public Facebook groups. By measuring the number of publications associated with each topic per year, from January 2019 to April 2023, we can compare their developments over time.

Graph 1: Distribution of most discussed topics
Period: from January 1, 2019, to April 30, 2023

 

Source: Facebook | Produced by: Democracy Reporting International (DRI)

 

While some do not show significant fluctuations (e.g. “support networks”), others are marked by peaks that can be associated with events widely covered by Brazilian media. For example, the peak of “trans visibility and its repercussions” might be associated with the wide coverage of a  report by Dr. Dráuzio Varella concerning an incarcerated transgender woman in March 2020.  Likewise, the inauguration of former President Jair Bolsonaro in January of the same year might be associated with the rise of “gender ideology” and “anti-trans political mobilization”.

 

“Gender Ideology” and “Anti-Trans Political Mobilization”

 

  • In quantitative terms, the three most common topics (by number of posts) “trans visibility and its repercussions” (914), “gender ideology” (645) and “anti-trans political mobilization” (611). While “trans visibility” showed irregular fluctuations over the analysed period, the latter two peaked in 2019 and gradually lost strength over time, suggesting that the beginning of the Bolsonaro’s government influenced an increase of  anti-trans rhetoric; 

 

  • The category  describing “gender ideology” clusters posts that criticise the advancement of policies in favor of the LGBTQIA+ population (e.g. education in sexual and gender diversity and non-binary language. The “anti-trans political mobilisation” category explicitly  refers to the actions of far-right representatives in Brazil against the same population, with an emphasis on posts mentioning former president Jair Bolsonaro; 

 

  • In this sense, the main subjects related to these topics in January 2019 are Bolsonaro's inauguration speech, in which he expressly indicated the goal of “fighting gender ideology”; related posts present him as an honest person who would not threaten minorities; orthe statement by former minister Damares Alves reinforcing gender roles, when she said, “boys wear blue” and “girls wear pink”.  

 

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Top Post: Stay calm, people! Bolsonaro is not a dictator, he's just honest and that's why he's scary. Thief will continue to thief. Travesti will continue travesti. Potheads will continue to be potheads. 

Bottom Post: Gender ideology, this is what Damares said with the metaphor, there is no point in changing the natural order of life, leave your support for our minister

Source: Facebook | Preparation: Diversity and Inclusion Program (FGV Direito Rio)

 

  • In this set of posts, it is claimed that Bolsonaro and his allies will fight corruption, “cleanse” Brazil of “criminals disguised as politicians” — usually in reference to left-leaning political figures — and end the “gender ideology.” “Gender ideology” is also commonly associated with terms like “feminism” and “abortion”; this association indicates a common (and negative) regard for progressive agendas that also extend to women’s rights.

 

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Caption: These actresses are not feminists, they defend abused women. They are feminist groups against the right-wing government, they are militant communists who use the feminist movement as a springboard to indoctrinate the Brazilian people. They are in favor of communist ideas: gender ideology and abortion.

Source: Facebook | Preparation: Diversity and Inclusion Program (FGV Direito Rio)

 

Trans visibility and its repercussions

 

  • These posts  capture both the discourse around episodes of widespread coverage of transgender people in Brazilian media and  trans representation in entertainment media. On the one hand, trans characters in series and films, for example, are commonly celebrated in some of the groups we analysed. On the other hand, trans women and men who occasionally occupy prominent positions in the media are often exposed to negative and/or transphobic comments, which are not always related to the central content of the reported event.

 

  • The first peak, as seen in Graph 1, occurred in the first half of 2020. At that time, a segment aired on the show "Fantástico" featuring Dr. Dráuzio Varella, in which he presented transgender and travesti women in Brazilian prisons through personal interviews. What specifically triggered the reactions on Facebook was the embrace that Varella gave Suzy, one of the women who participated as an interlocutor in the report; 

 

  • The comments about the episode were mostly negative, with mentions of the crime for which Suzy had been convicted — to criticise the doctor's affectionate gesture — and criticism of Globo, the broadcaster that aired the report (e.g. with the use of the hashtag #globolixo, which translates to #globotrash). In a few cases, critical comments about the report also associated it with the “left” or referred to it with a positive and solidarity tone. Furthermore, there was disinformation about the case, in a post that claimed that television presenter Fátima Bernardes would renovate Suzy's prison cell — this post was shared several times and later flagged as false information by independent fact-checkers on Facebook. 

 

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Top Post: Minister Damares was raped and served as a laughing stock by #GloboLixo. Suzy, the transsexual who raped and asphyxiated killed a 9-year-old boy receives special story and hug from Drauzio Varela as being a victim of society. It is for these and others that every day I feel more comfortable supporting Bolsonaro. 

Bottom Post: Fátima Bernardes makes a surprise and will renovate transexual Suzy’s prison cell.

Source: Facebook | Preparation: Diversity and Inclusion Program (FGV Direito Rio)

 

  • Although it does not appear as a second peak in the graph (too few posts), many posts in this category referred to the boycott against the Brazilian cosmetics group, Natura, for featuring Thammy Miranda, a transgender man, as one of the participants in their Father's Day campaign; 

 

  • In July 2020, a series of posts spread the hashtag #naturanão (translated to #notnatura) to criticise cosmetics company’s choice, stating that it went  against the values of the “Brazilian family” and was another “leftist stunt”. In contrast, a supporting post by Toni Reis, President of the LGBTI+ Alliance, congratulated Natura and defended Thammy's participation in the campaign — the publication received at least 760 interactions; 
  • The last upward trend, in March 2022, was due to Linn da Quebrada’s participation in that year’s edition of Big Brother Brasil (BBB). The comments were divided between expressions of support for the artist, suggesting that the program could have its first transgender woman winner, and criticism, claiming that Linn was using her transgender identity as an advantage, and that her identity as a trans woman would be the only reason for her to be the winner of the reality show;

 

  • Linn was also compared to other transgender women (e.g., Rogéria), indicating that she still had “a lot to learn,” and was called “ungrateful,” “liar” and “inhumane” when participating in conflicts with other participants of the BBB. In these posts, the artist was commonly referred to as a travesti, despite being referred to according to female pronouns in these cases;

 

  • On the other hand, publications about representation in entertainment media celebrate the presence of LGBTQIA+ characters and, more specifically, transgender people in series (e.g. Heartstopper, Itaewon Class, Secret Crush on You), soap operas, movies, and comics. Studios associated with these characters, such as Disney, Marvel, and DreamWorks, are explicitly or implicitly mentioned. In addition, there is also mention of the presence of transgender and trans non-binary characters in games;

 

  • The comparison between groups suggests that visibility strategies in media with a more enduring temporal profile, as is often the case with the aforementioned media, have had a more positive impact when compared to other events where trans issues are only briefly highlighted.  It is important to consider, however, that in the cases we mentioned as peaks, the increased level of discourse may have been due to the means through which the episodes were circulated (two of them on Globo, one of the largest television stations in Brazil).

 

 

Support Networks

 

  • With slight variation in posts over time, the theme “support networks” gathers publications predominantly by transgender people in groups aimed at promoting sociability, providing support and exchanging common experiences. Examples include publications with makeup tips, reports on physical health and documentation of the transition process; 

 

  • There are also a large number of posts made by transgender women seeking romantic relationships, such as: “Good afternoon. I am a trans woman, are there men looking for a serious relationship?” These publications are commonly accompanied by photos of these women and contact information, suggesting that these are safe spaces to look for potential partners;

 

  • In this set, there is a higher number of publications on transgender men, addressing specific topics such as trans-masculinities and mentioning influential figures in the transgender community, such as João W. Nery, who passed away in 2018. This seems to be an environment marked by solidarity and companionship, in which cases of violence are reported with the apparent goal of raising awareness, mobilization and/or seeking help.

 

Religion and gender identity/expression

 

  • Approximately 29% of the posts included in this topic refer to accounts from people claiming to be “former travestis”, “former drag queens”, or “former homosexuals”. Published in religious-oriented groups, these posts adopt a tone of “salvation” regarding transgender identity, which is, in turn, recurrently associated with criminality, drugs and prostitution.
  • Usually made in first person, the posts indicate that God, Jesus, or the Church were central to the experienced “miracle”. The posts also suggest support systems that others in similar situations could turn to, implying (as in the case below) that being transgender is something to be overcome.

 

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Top Post: Today it has been one year since I was in the presence of God, to the honour and glory of the Lord. This God works miracles, I am a redeemed young man #former-travesti #former-criminal

Bottom Post: [...] I spent 8 years away from the ways of the Lord. When I left the church I was exactly 11 years old. [...] I was a homosexual, a travesti, a drug addict, a prostitute, a thief, but God healed and transformed me.

Source: Facebook | Preparation: Diversity and Inclusion Program (FGV Direito Rio)

 

  • More comprehensive posts associating LGBTQIA+ people in general and transgender people in specific with demonization narratives are also common. For example, the possibility of religious leaders being associated with agendas such as “gender ideology” and “abortion” is condemned, and the Church is urged to reject them.

 

  • In August 2020, at least thirteen publications with the text “Trans pastor preaches that God is a travesti and generates controversy on the internet; watch the video” were shared. However, none of the URLs leading to the video are still available, suggesting Facebook removed the video for containing false content. 

 

  • On the other hand, some publications take a positive tone regarding the intersections between gender and spirituality. This is the case with posts about aspects of African-derived religions, particularly regarding  the interpretation of masculinity and femininity of some of their entities. In this sense, we also identified publications that question and/or provide guidance on the inclusion of transgender people in terreiros (religious settings). 

 

Gender-neutral bathrooms and non-binary language

 

  • In our sample, the last two topics do not show a substantial number of posts, or relevant fluctuations over the analysed period. Although they are related to recurring themes in recent social debates involving transgender people in Brazil, the publications we collected in Facebook groups do not reflect, at first glance, the same predominance.

 

  • Referred to in most publications as the “unisex bathroom,” transgender-inclusive restrooms are interpreted negatively. The narratives are explicitly transphobic, targeting transgender women, and claiming that their presence in certain spaces would increase cases of harassment and expose other women to their alleged male genitalia.

 

  • Some of the allegations, following the trend identified in the other topics, also make associations with the left and with “gender ideology,”  mentioning the repudiation of the creation of these bathrooms in schools. In the description of a shared video, it states: “In a school, a travesti who used the women’s bathroom, assaults a woman who disagreed.”

 

  • At least two cases with repercussions in the media were also mentioned: the “multi-gender bathroom” in a McDonald’s unit in São Paulo; and the transphobic speech by former state deputy Douglas Garcia (at the time, affiliated with the Social Liberal Party — PSL), stating in the Legislative Assembly of São Paulo that “If a man who thinks he is a woman enters the bathroom where my mother or sister is, I’ll physically remove him and then call the police”.

 

  • Finally, although it does not have a substantial number of posts (92, in a sampleof more than 4,000), the theme “non-binary language” grew between 2019 and 2021, with a slight peak in the latter  year. In our sample, however, we did not identify any specific event that increased the number of mentions (as in the other cases), with the main subject within the topic being the use of gender-neutral pronouns.

 

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Caption: [I am] it a lecture at medical school and a student uses gender neutral. It seems that medicine has stopped evolving now. 

Source: Facebook | Preparation: Diversity and Inclusion Program (FGV Direito Rio)

 

  • Analysing the posts qualitatively, we observe that most of the posts have a mocking and critical tone, ridiculing the changes proposed by non-binary language in relation to the grammar of the Portuguese language. There are a few mentions of specific topics, such as the introduction of neutral pronouns in ENEM essays. One of the most repeated posts, appearing six times, reproduces a text from someone who presents themselves as a Portuguese teacher, stating that  “Portuguese does not accept neutral gender.”

 

Average posts and reactions associated with the most discussed topics: 

 

The graph below shows the average number of posts associated with each of the topics we identified for the analysis period, as well as the average number of reactions linked to them. Reactions refer to the number of likes (including reactions such as “I loved,” “care,” “wow,” “haha,” “sad” and “angry”), as well as comments and shares. To calculate the values, we summed the reactions that each post received and divided it by the total number of posts in that topic.

 

Graph 2: Average posts and reactions per topic

Period: from January 1, 2019, to April 30, 2023

 

Source: Facebook | Produced by: Democracy Reporting International (DRI)

  • Although “gender ideology,” “anti-trans political mobilization” and “trans visibility and its repercussions”were the topics with the most posts,only the first two received a considerable number of reactions. Regarding “gender ideology,” the data corroborates other relevant  studies that identify the use of the expression as a “slogan-label” against the advancement of different political mobilisations by the LGBTQIA+ and feminist movements, pointing to the gathering of different “moral entrepreneurs” who use it as a panic device;

 

  • Regarding “Trans Visibility and its Repercussions”, the number of reactions is associated both with the previously narrated negative effects due to Drauzio Varella’s interview with Suzy, Linn’s participation in BBB, and Natura’s Father’s Day campaign, as well as positive reactions resulting from the representation of trans individuals in entertainment media, with a positive and celebratory tone.

 

  • On the other hand, topics such as “non-binary language” and “gender-neutral bathrooms", despite a relatively low average of associated posts, had a considerable number of reactions – with tones of mockery, especially in relation to the use of neutral pronouns.

 

  • Overall,  the highest average of reactions were in response to   hostile and violent content towards trans people, suggesting that, in our analysis, posts that evoke negative emotions generate greater online engagement. It is also important to highlight that disinformation also permeates these topics, whether regarding the indiscriminate use of the term “gender ideology” to reeinforce stereotypes and agendas never defended by the LGBTQIA+ community, or to claim that being transgender is something to be “corrected”, or that creating gender-neutral bathrooms is a gateway to sexual abuse.

 

How the debate develops: Sentiment analysis of posts made on Facebook groups discussing trans issues and trans rights 

 

Sentiment analysis is a natural language processing technique that aims to identify the emotional polarity in a text, usually classifying it as positive, negative, or neutral. Using a pre-trained model for sentiment analysis, we analysed the posts to understand the sentiment linked to them. The graph below shows the percentage of posts considered negative, positive, or neutral for the top fifteen groups with the highest number of posts in our sample.

 

Graph 3: Sentiment of posts in public Facebook groups

Period: from January 1, 2019, to April 30, 2023

Source: Facebook | Produced by: Democracy Reporting International (DRI)

 

  • The results from the sentiment classification suggests that discussions about trans people’s rights, political claims and lived experiences are consistently associated with topics, terms and formulations read as negative in the vast majority of groups.
  • With the exception of the group “edita pra mim” – which does not currently present itself with the aim of addressing political issues – all groups with more than 60% of their messages classified as negative are explicitly political groups, with many referring to political figures such as former president Jair Bolsonaro and current senator Sergio Moro (União Brasil). The “edita pra mim” group, in turn, also draws attention due to the high percentage of messages read as negative (65%). As already analysed in this report, these groups are aligned with a conservative and transphobic narrative.
  • The messages found in these groups, as already analysed, refer to the themes of “gender ideology” and “anti-trans political mobilization.” The posts categorised as negative often use vulgar language and derogatory terms to refer to trans people and propagate conservative perspectives often endorsed by political figures referred to in the groups.
  • The group “LGBT Brasil (profile 2)”, despite declaring itself as a group in favor of the rights of trans people, has some of its posts classified  with negative sentiment due to the sharing of cases of violence (physical or psychological), transphobia and hate speech against trans people – for the purpose of denouncing, mobilising and raising awareness –  as well as posts with a critical tone towards the government of the former president.

 

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Caption: Being transgender is practically being born dead. It may sound very strong what I am saying, but society pushes transgender people to death, unfortunately. I speak about this openly because I have never had so much space to talk about it. Trans people are still the focus of violence, seen as freaks. But they are not that, they are human beings like anyone else, with rights to citizenship, to vote, to eat, to breathe and to live. 

Source: Facebook | Produced by: Democracy Reporting International (DRI)

 

  • Among the groups with the highest number of posts, only the group “Libertos por Deus LPD” had the majority of its posts classified as positive. The messages are read by the lexical model as positive due to the way users describe their religious experiences of “conversion miracles” using positive words and expressions, as indicated earlier in this report from topic modeling.

 

Graph 4: Sentiment of posts in public Facebook groups

Period: from January 1, 2019, to April 30, 2023

 

 

Source: Facebook | Produced by: Democracy Reporting International (DRI)

 

  • From this analysis, no clear trends emerge,  with a variety of sentiments towards posts associated with each of the topics we identified. Some of them, such as "gender Ideology" and "trans visibility and its repercussions", show a balance between negative and positive sentiments, the latter with a considerable percentage of neutral sentiments.
  • The balance within “gender ideology” can be explained by several posts that praised measures adopted during the government of former President Jair Bolsonaro. One example that appears in many posts refers to the statement by the former Minister of Women, Family and Human Rights, Damares Alves, in which she states “boys wear blue and girls wear pink”, reinforcing a gender stereotype in society. Due to the congratulatory tone and agreement with the statement, the lexical model classifies many messages as positive.

 

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Caption: Minister Damaris represents me and thousands of mothers and fathers who do not want gender ideology in schools with our children.

Source: Facebook | Produced by: Democracy Reporting International (DRI)

 

  • Other topics such as "anti-trans political mobilization" and "gender-neutral bathrooms" lean towards negativity, with a higher percentage of negative sentiment. In the case of the topic “gender-neutral bathrooms” there are many posts that intersect disinformation on the subject and hate speech, suggesting, for example, that being transgender could be simulated by “anyone.”

 

  • In these cases, the constructed narrative questions and seeks to delegitimize the gender identity of trans women by suggesting that the political claim for gender-neutral bathrooms would pose a threat to cisgender women, who would be subject to abuses, for instance.

 

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Caption: The Council of Salvador approve men's entry in women's bathroom! You who have a mother, a sister and a daughter, and who only watch the Globe, be aware. It's not just travestiss, pay attention, it's gender ideology too. Anyone can dress up as a woman and say they are transgender! As long as you give votes to gangs like PT, PCdoB and PSOL [leftist Parties], this country will be a disgrace. 

Source: Facebook | Produced by: Democracy Reporting International (DRI)

 

  • On the other hand, the topics "support networks" and "non-binary language" have a predominance of positive sentiment. In the case of “support networks,” the sentiment is explained by  posts made in a friendly tone and, with the purpose of meeting other people with similar experiences. As for the “non-binary language” topic, it seems to be due to the mocking tone that many posts have, which, although not classified l as negative by the model, suggests the representation of the issue as something that should not be taken seriously.
  • The topic "religion and gender identity/expression" receives a high percentage of positive sentiment due to the tone of “salvation” and “gratitude” that the posts receive, as already discussed in the report. It is worth noting that, although not explicitly mentioned, the posts refer to the so-called “conversion therapies,” supposed treatments whose objective is to “reverse” homosexuality or, in this case, transgender identity. In Brazil, practices like these are prohibited by the Federal Council of Psychology for gay people since 1999 and for transgender people since 2018.

 

 

 

 

Prepared by:

Victor Giusti (Researcher at FGV Direito Rio/ Diversity and Inclusion Program)
Beatriz Saab (Digital Democracy Researcher at Democracy Reporting International)
Ligia Fabris (Professor at FGV Direito Rio/ Diversity and Inclusion Program)